Glutamic acid decarboxylase is an enzyme synthesizing g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a protein inhibitory neurotransmitter and a critical component of neurophysiological function. GAD denotes an enzymatic activity part of a critical synthetic pathway.
In terms of gene or protein structure and function, GAD includes two protein isoforms that successfully catalyze GABA synthesis. One of these isoforms has a 65KDa size and is termed GAD65.
What is the GAD 65 Antibody Test?
The GAD 65 antibodies can precisely forecast T1D progression in combination with other proxy humoral biomarkers. Also, they are considered the most subtle and definite in identifying a subset of clinically diagnosed T2D termed LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults).
So GAD 65 antibody test is for confirming if the patient is suffering from LADA and other neurological diseases.
What is the Reason for Taking the GAD 65 Antibody Test?
You must take the test to confirm if you are suffering from a type of diabetes that may show some symptoms. Get the test if you show any of these symptoms.
- Excessive thirst and hunger
- Cuts or sores taking a long time to heal
- Frequent urination
- Blurry Vision
- Weight loss
The particular GAD65 test is generally needed when the patient experiences seizures and amnesia, along with numerous psychiatric symptoms like anxiety, apathy, depressive symptoms, and behavioral changes.
What do the Different Results in GAD Tests mean?
The GAD antibody test results confirm the level of GAD antibodies in the blood. If the result is five units/ml that means your test result is normal. People with a lower body mass index are more inclined to have high levels of GAD antibodies. Antibodies directed against the 65KD isoform of GAD get encountered at high titers (< or =20 nmol/L) in quite a few autoimmune neurologic disorders. It can be stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia or limbic encephalitis (LE) and epilepsy, seizure disorders, and other myopathies.
The presence of GAD 65 AB indicates an immune system attack, which pinpoints to type 1 diabetes. But type 1 diabetes isn’t the only ground for someone to have GAD autoantibodies. Many neural conditions are the reason for these antibodies, including Cerebellar ataxia.
What does a GAD Antibody Test Involve?
A GAD antibody test follows the general procedure of a blood test. The lab technician will take your blood sample as given below:
- They will start by tightly binding an elastic band, called a tourniquet, around your arm, for drawing blood.
- Then the tech will clean the skin with an antiseptic, preventing the germs on your skin from infiltrating your body.
- After that, they will insert the needle to draw out blood with the suction tube.
After the blood is drawn, they will remove the needle and cover the puncture with a bandaid. The blood sample will be sent to the lab for testing.
But you need to see a doctor first for a prescribed test of GAD65. After you get your test report, you can show it to your doctor, who will analyze it for you.
What are the Benefits of Taking a GAD65 Antibody Test?
- Autoimmune Neurology
GAD65 antibodies are usual in classical SPS and are also found in some patients with PERM or limited SPS forms. Radioimmunoassay also detects these antibodies in 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes. GAD antibody-positive occurring in vivo is not clear yet but IgG preparations have a chance to inhibit GABA synthesis.
- Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes
The GAD65 antibody identifies cerebellar neurons, which react with the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. Also, it reacts in the nerve terminals in both granular and molecular cell layers. Additionally, the antibody reacts with the nerve terminals throughout the neuraxis but is registered to hippocampal neurons and appears to own a different labeling pattern which depends on the underlying neurologic disease.
- Type 1 (Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes Mellitus
GAD65 antibodies’ highly effective, precise, and reproducible screening assays can detect individuals with an increased risk of T1DM. The early detection of T1DM can save someone from death in some cases.
Also, various fatal diseases can be detected before they occur with the help of GAD65 antibody tests. The reaction of the antibody helps in detecting these fatal diseases.
You can save yourself from various diseases by taking the GAD65 antibody test. This test can detect some of the most dangerous conditions leading to death. And for proper treatment, detection of the source of the disease is necessary.